A bunion is a firm, fluid-filled pad overlying the inside of the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint). The pad (bursa), which may get larger and stick out, can become inflamed and painful. Bunions may run in families, but many result from wearing tight shoes. Nine out of 10 bunions are developed by women. Nine out of 10 women wear shoes that are too small. Tight shoes also can cause other disabling foot problems like corns, calluses and hammertoes.
Causes of bunions and risk factors for bunions include a family tendency to bunions may make them more likely to develop. Arthritis of the foot, if it affects walking, it can make bunions more likely to develop. Neuromuscular problems, such as cerebral palsy. Biomechanical factors, such as low arches, flat feet and hypermobile joints, can increase the risk. Wearing shoes that are too tight, too narrow and with pointed toes will exacerbate symptoms if bunions are present. Wearing high heels will also exacerbate existing bunions. Women are more prone to bunions than men.
No matter what stage your bunion is in, you can be in pain. Though bunions take years to develop, you can experience pain at any stage. Some people don?t have bunion pain at all. Pain from a bunion can be severe enough to keep you from walking comfortably in normal shoes. The skin and deeper tissue around the bunion also may become swollen or inflamed.
Your doctor will ask questions about your past health and carefully examine your toe and joint. Some of the questions might be: When did the bunions start? What activities or shoes make your bunions worse? Do any other joints hurt? The doctor will examine your toe and joint and check their range of motion. This is done while you are sitting and while you are standing so that the doctor can see the toe and joint at rest and while bearing weight. X-rays are often used to check for bone problems or to rule out other causes of pain and swelling. Other tests, such as blood tests or arthrocentesis (removal of fluid from a joint for testing), are sometimes done to check for other problems that can cause joint pain and swelling. These problems might include gout , rheumatoid arthritis , or joint infection.
Non Surgical Treatment
In most cases the symptoms of bunions can be reduced or relieved without surgery. Reducing pressure on the bunion is the first step in reducing the pain associated with the condition. Wearing correctly fitting shoes is important in achieving this. A referral to a podiatrist may be made in order to assess the need for special orthotic devices, such as custom-made arch supports and shoe inserts (eg: metatarsal pad or bar). These can help to relieve tension on the base of the big toe and help prevent flat-footedness. Specific exercises and bunion pads available over-the-counter at pharmacies may also be of benefit. Anti-inflammatory medicines can help to ease pain in the short term. Steroid injections may be used to relieve severe pain. If a sufficient reduction in symptoms is not achieved by non-surgical treatment, then surgery may be recommended.
The surgical treatment will vary depending on x-ray analysis and severity of the deformity. Most bunion surgeries focus on realigning the bony deformities of the bunion/big toe joint. At Accent on Feet we practice Ambulatory foot surgery for bunion correction. This method allows for faster healing, lower risk and preferred cosmetic result over traditional hospital surgery. All surgical procedures are performed in the office using local anesthesia (freezing). All patients walk immediately.